Pseudotropheus saulosi (索氏拟丽鱼 索罗西斑马)

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General: Pseudotropheus saulosi is classified as a dwarf-mbuna from Lake Malawi. It was discovered by Ad Konings in 1989 while exploring along a reef that the locals called ‘Taiwan’. It was discovered by accident as Konings was scuba diving and holding onto the reef at 7 meters. He was waiting for his ears to clear so he could descend further on his exploration. It was here, as he struggled against a stiff current, that he noticed large groups of yellow fish swimming against the current. When he described it as Pseudotropheus saulosi, he named it after one of the local guides who helped him discover it – Saulos Mwale.

Description: The saulosi is considered a dwarf mbuna because it reaches a size of only 3-4 inches. Males are blue with black vertical bars, and females are a beautiful, deep yellow. Fry are born yellow and, as they near adulthood, will begin to show adult female and male colors.

Male and Female Ps. Saulosi

In the wild: Along Taiwan reef, Ps. saulosi can be found at depths of 7-15 meters. Large schools roam the rocky areas of the reef, scavenging for food among the algae growing on the rocks. These schools contain only yellow fish. However, not all of them are females, there may also be males that have kept the female colors. Males that display the full blue coloration are those that have a territory claimed, and they seem rare when compared to the quantities of yellow schools.

In the aquarium: Because Ps. saulosi is a dwarf mbuna it can be kept in tanks that are smaller than most required for mbuna. However, they can still be very territorial, and need a lot of swimming space. Depending on the size of the tank, you may only have one ‘dominant’ male who achieves the brilliant blue color. Sub-dominant male Ps. SaulosiOther males may be a pale blue with bars visible, but the depth of color may change with the situation. If you have younger males in a tank with a dominant male, the younger ones will keep the female colors and blend in with the females. However, the dominant male will not be fooled. He will still chase the young males much harder than any of the females. They are best kept in groups of 6 or more, allowing the dominant male to spread out his aggression against several individuals. They should be kept in tanks of 55 gallons or larger.

Breeding: Pseudotropheus saulosi is a maternal mouthbrooder. The male will select a breeding site, it will usually be on the sandy bottom. He may, or may not, dig a pit in the sand down to the aquarium bottom. This pit may be up against a large rock, or it may not. They don’t seem too finicky. Once his breeding site is picked out, and a female is ready to spawn, he will display by shaking in front of the female. (Note if a male is shaking in the same way in front of another male, he is displaying his dominance. The subdominant male will clamp his fins and lose his color as a sign of submission.) After displaying for the female, he will attempt to lead her back to his spawning site by swimming away, but shaking his tail in a manner only seen during spawning. Once the spawn is complete, the female will hold the eggs in her mouth until the fry are able to swim and forage for themselves. This is usually 13-18 days. The female will take food into her mouth during the brooding cycle, however, it may be to feed her fry as much as it is to feed herself. Brood sizes will usually be less than 20 fry, and 10-15 is most common.

Feeding: Ps. saulosi should be fed a spirulina based diet. They will graze on algae growing on rocks and glass, but not enough for algae control. When I have to put my hand in my tank, they don’t hesitate to see if my hand or arm has anything good to eat on it. Their teeth are made for scraping algae, so it feels like coarse sand paper when they nibble. The occasional treats of brine shrimp flakes and/or cichlid flakes is acceptable, however, avoid pellets of any type. A sprig of Romaine lettuce is another good food to add for variety.

Other care tips: Ps. saulosi should be kept with other mbuna approximately their size. Labidochromis species make good tank mates. Larger, more aggressive, mbuna species should be avoided, as well as any species that has the blue or yellow colorings, if stocking saulosi in your tank.

 

索氏拟丽鱼(索罗西斑马)

索氏拟丽鱼又称索罗西斑马(观赏名)全长8.6厘米。

雄鱼呈蓝色,体侧具数条黑色垂直横带。而雌鱼呈漂亮的深黄色。鱼苗呈黄色。

分布于非洲,马拉维湖特有种。见于台湾礁。栖息于热带(23~27摄氏度;南纬11度~南纬13度)淡水湖泊底层,深度7~15米。出没于无沉积物的岩石区。见于岩礁的上部,这里波涛汹涌。杂食性,以来自基底的松散附着生物为食。

结成大群在礁的岩石区漫游,凭借在岩石上生长的藻类中捡拾和啃咬而搜罗食物。这些大群只包含黄色的鱼。然而,他们不都是雌鱼,那里或许也有雄鱼,保持着雌鱼的色彩。只有霸有一块领地的雄鱼才是全蓝色的。与大群的黄色鱼比较,他们很少。

作为观赏鱼颇受欢迎。因为他是一个短小的姆布纳,只有8~10厘米,他可以饲养在一个较小的鱼缸中。200升的就行,当然越大越好。然而,他仍然可以很霸道,并且需要大量的游动空间。受制于鱼缸的规模,你或许只有一只主导雄鱼获得了亮蓝色。其他雄鱼或许呈浅蓝色体侧可见垂直横带,但颜色的深度随着地位会改变。假如鱼缸中有一只较年轻的雄鱼,这只在主导雄鱼旁边的年轻的雄鱼,会保持雌鱼的色彩假扮成一只雌鱼。然而主导雄鱼也不傻,他会从雌鱼中识别出他来,并且仍然会非常严厉地追咬他。最好饲养6只或更多的一堆鱼,让主导雄鱼把凶劲分散到多个个体身上。

本种是雌鱼口孵育雏。雄鱼选好一块繁殖场地,这通常会在沙质基底上。他有时在沙地上挖掘一个坑穴向下直到水族缸底部。这个坑穴往往对这一块大岩石。这些他都不怎么讲究。

一旦准备就绪,并且雌鱼也准备产卵,雄鱼会在雌鱼面前摇头摆尾地的瑟。(注意,假如一只雄鱼以同样的方式在另一只雄鱼面前摇头摆尾,他是在显示他的领主地位。这个非主导雄鱼会耷拉下鳍并且退去色彩,以示臣服。)为雌鱼得瑟完,他游走,试图引着她回到他那个准备好的产卵场地。这个摇头摆尾的动作只在产卵期间才能见到。

一旦产卵完毕,雌鱼会把卵含在嘴里,直到鱼苗能够游动并且自己吃食为止。这通常需要13~18天。在育雏期间,雌鱼会把食物叼入口中,不过,这大概是在喂嘴里的鱼苗,而不是她自己吃。一窝鱼苗通常少于20只,一般都在15~20只。

含卵雌鱼也能把身体变成雄鱼的色彩,这让她看上去很凶,以吓跑潜在的盗卵贼,或者可以霸有一块领地以安妥地释放鱼苗。

他们会吃长在石块和玻璃上的苔藓,但这些苔藓肯定不够吃。你还应该投喂以螺旋藻为主的饲料。当我把手伸进鱼缸时,他们毫不迟疑地马上过来看我的手或胳膊上有没有给他们的好吃的。他们的牙齿是用来刮食藻类的,因此当他们轻咬到你时,感觉就像是用粗砂纸擦你的手。偶尔喂以丰年虾干片和/或鱼食干片,稍微款待他们一下。有时给他们一小片生菜增加些花样。然而,应该避免鱼食颗粒。

本种可以与其他近似尺寸的姆布纳混养。镊鱼属鱼种可以作为好的缸友。假如你家鱼缸里饲养着本种鱼,应该避免与大型的,很凶的姆布纳混养,带有蓝色和黄色色素的也不行。